The two most important achievements in physics in the 20th century were the discoveries of the theory of relativity and quantum physics. In 1928, Paul Dirac synthesized these two theories and wrote the Dirac equation to describe particles moving close to the speed of light in a quantum mechanical way, and thus initiated the beginning of relativistic quantum mechanics. Graphene, a single atomic layer of graphite discovered only a decade ago, has been providing physicists opportunities to explore an interesting analogy to relativistic quantum mechanics. The unique electronic structure of graphene yields an energy and momentum relation mimicking that of relativistic quantum particles, providing opportunities to explore exotic and exciting science and potential technological applications based on the flat carbon form. In this presentation Professor Kim discuses the brief history of graphene research and its implications in science and technology. Philip Kim is an experimental condensed matter physicist. The focus of Kim group’s research is the mesoscopic investigation of various physical phenomena in low dimensional and nanostructured materials. In a nanoscaled material, effectively reduced dimensionality of the electron system yields enhanced quantum effects and increased correlation effects due to the reduction of available phase space. The low dimensional materials the Kim group is working on include 2-dimensional mesoscopic crystals, 1-dimensional nanowires and nanotubes, and single organic and inorganic molecular crystals. The use of modern state-of-the-art device fabrication techniques and the development of novel material synthesis/manipulation methods are essential parts of our research. The current research topics are: quantum transport in graphene and its heterostructures; developing heterostructured van der Waals material interfaces; mesoscale investigation physics of correlated materials; and quantum engineered thermoelectric/ thermal transport.